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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AT 50: From Building Intelligence to Nurturing Sociabilities Sherry Turkle This paper was presented at the Dartmouth Artifical Intelligence Conference, Hanover, NH, Saturday, July 15th, 2006.ABSTRACT From the aspirations of the Dartmouth conference to the conversations of the 1980s when the first computational toys for children were hitting the consumer market, much of the debate about artificial intelligence has centered on the question of whether machines could “really” be intelligent.This question was essentially about the objects themselves,what they could and could not do.These days, new questions are in the air, influenced by the cultural presence of machines that lead not so much with their intelligence as by their seeming sociability. When a relational artifact offers us its “attention,” we are encouraged to care for it.When that cared-for object thrives, we experience that object as intelligent, but more important, we feel a new level of connection to it.The cultural conversation about artificial intelligence as it manifests itself in relational artifacts is not so much about whether these machines “really” have emotion or intelligence but about our desire for connection to them, about what they evoke in their users.
If mind was program, as the field suggested, where was self? ” but it has also led to another and more self-reflexive question, “Have people always been machines?
” In other words, over the past fifty years, AI has brought philosophy into everyday life, including into the lives of children.
Indeed, the playthings of the computer culture have shifted how children talk about what is and is not alive (Turkle2005), 1995).
From the time of the appearance of the first computer toys and games in the early 1980s, children began to use different categories to talk about the “aliveness” of computational games and toys than they use to talk about the aliveness of “traditional” objects.
A traditional wind-up toy is considered “not alive” when children realize that it does not move of its own accord.